Watch the video to learn more about plant reproduction.


Key concepts of Reproduction (flowering plants) : 

  • The main stages of plant reproduction include: Pollination >>> Fertilisation >>> Formation of fruit >>> Seed dispersal >>> Germination

  • Male parts of the flower: Anther (produces and store pollen grain) & Filament (supports the anther)

  • Female parts of the flower: Stigma (the pollen grains land on it), Style (supports the stigma), Ovary (contains the ovule) & the Ovule (contains the egg cell)



  • Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma

  • 2 types of pollination: Self-pollination (occurs within the same flower or across flowers from the same plant), Cross-pollination (occurs across flowers from different plants)

  • 2 methods / agents of pollination: pollination by animals (flowers usually contain nectar, are scented, large and colourful). Pollination by wind (flowers are usually small and dull in colour, with stigmas and anthers hanging out of the petals).



  • Fertilisation is the fusing of the male sex cell with the female sex cell (egg cell)

  • When the pollen grain lands on the stigma, it produces a pollen tube that grows down the style to the ovules in the ovary. The male sex cell travels in the pollen tube to reach the ovule in order to fuse with the egg cell.

  • The ovary of the flower develops into a fruit. The ovules develop into seeds.


Seed dispersal

  • Seed dispersal prevents overcrowding so that the young plants do not compete with parent plant for sunlight, water, space and mineral salts.
  • 4 methods of seed dispersal: Animals, Water, Wind and Splitting



  • Seeds need air (oxygen), water and warmth to germinate.

  • The baby plant in the seed obtains its food from the seed leaves in order to germinate. The seed leaves will eventually shrivel and drop off when its food store is used up.

  • The seedling needs light to photosynthesise only after its first green (true) leaves have grown.


Take this quiz to recap what you have learnt. Aim to reach the moon!