Watch the video to learn more about Plants (including fern and Mosses), Bacteria and Fungi.


Key concepts of Plants, Fungi and Bacteria : 

  • Living things can be grouped into Animals, Plants, Bacteria and Fungi.

  • The characteristics of all living things are that they need air, food and water to stay alive, respond to changes around them, move by themselves, grow, reproduce and die.



  • Their leaves contain chlorophyll to trap sunlight to make food (photosynthesis).

  • Cannot move from place to place on their own.

  • Some plants have flowers. Flowering plants either have flowers that grow singly (e.g. Hibiscus, Lily)  or in clusters (e.g. Ixora).

  • Fruits are developed from flowers and they contain seeds.

  • Flowering plants have a 3-stage life cycle: Seed --> Young Plant --> Adult.

  • Some plants do not produce flowers and will not have fruits. Examples of non-flowering plants are ferns and mosses. They reproduce from spores.

  • The function of the roots is to hold the plant securely to the soil and absorb water and mineral salts from the soil.

  • The function of the stem is to transport water (and mineral salts) from the roots to the leaves. Stems hold leaves up so that the leaves can trap more sunlight. Stems also transport food made in the leaves to all parts of the plant.

  • Leaves have different shapes (oval / heart / lance), edges (lobed / smooth / jagged) or vein patterns (network / parallel).


  • Do not contain chlorophyll and cannot make their own food.

  • Cannot move from place to place on their own.

  • Examples include mushrooms (e.g. edible Mushroom, Bracket Fungus and Toadstool), mould and yeast.

  • Fungi reproduce from spores. The spores of the mushroom can be found in the gills underside the cap.

  • Fungi grow in dark and damp places. (They can also grow under sunlight if there is sufficient water.)

  • Fungi feed on other plants and animals as they cannot make their own food. As such, they are decomposers, causing other dead plants and animals to decay and decompose.


  • Bacteria are microscopic organisms.

  • Some bacteria are harmful. They may cause food to go bad or cause diseases

  • Some bacteria are useful, such as the bacteria used to make yoghurt.


Take this quiz to recap what you have learnt. Aim to reach the moon!